Dio and Klaf

L'maseh what is dio made from now a days and how.
(If there are several types, please almost mention.)

As well from what type of animal is klaf made from (if different types also please mention.)

If thing are exactly how they are spelled out in Shulchan Aruch then also fair to say that however for the dio I need an explanation of what Shulchan Aruch is referring to!

Thanks to the olam in advanced.


  1. there are two types of ink
    carbon ink:was used in time of gemara and early rishonim blackness comes from burnt-wood shemen zayis etc it can be mixed with many adhesives as honey gum arabic etc.we all recall the gemara "kol hashmanim yafim lidyo veshemen zayis min hamuvchar" problem with this ink is if it is not done properly it smudges and erases easily.

    dio afatzim- the Greeks found that mixing tanic acid (mei afatzim)(found in gall nuts) with sulfite(metal-kankantom)we get a black color. the ingredients can be cooked in water or dissolved in vinegar-to get the ink to be the correct thickness and consistency gum arabic(guma)is added.

    Dio lanetzach makes carbon ink all others are dio afatzim.


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Not a "khaf"

תיבה מיותרת במזוזה