1) Does anyone know the origin of the pay kefulah, and which areas / periods this was common in?
2) Batim question (Reb Moshe): I have a secular Jew who is very attached to his tefillin - he has the smaller pshutim older style batim . The parshiyos are competely unkosher but he wants to keep the batim. Problem is my cheapest parshiyios are too big - they stick into the titurah. The titurah is made of those two pieces of pressed leather. assuming they are glued to the bayis and the parsha sits entirely in the bayis and inside this part which is glued to the bayis, while this is certainly not mehudar, I assume it's definitely still kosher (when glued).